Date updated: October 11, A citation style is a set of rules on how to cite your sources in academic writing. Citation style guidelines are often published in an official handbook containing explanations, examples, and instructions.
There are two main aspects that differ between styles:. We have compiled a quick guide to all the main citation styles. Table of contents Most common citation styles Differences between citation styles Which citation style should you use? There are many different citation styles, and the preferred style often depends on your discipline.
However, some universities require the use of a single citation style across all departments. The chart below gives an overview of how often different styles are used. Different citation styles have different rules for in-text citations , reference list entries, and sometimes the formatting of your paper. When you refer to a source for example, by quoting or paraphrasing , you have to add a brief citation in the text. There are three main types of citation:. At the end of your paper, you include a list of all the sources you cited.
Each entry on the list corresponds to an in-text citation, and gives the reader full publication information to easily find the source. Citation styles differ in the naming of this list: in APA it is the reference page, in MLA it is the works cited , and in Chicago A it is the bibliography. There are also differences in the order of information and how you format each entry.
The format often depends on the type of source e. The easiest way to create reference entries is to use a citation generator. Some citation styles also have rules about the formatting of your paper as a whole. This might include guidelines for what should go on the cover page ; margins, spacing and font size; titles and headings ; or even how to write numbers and abbreviations. However, these rules are generally more flexible and less important than the citation rules. Scribbr Plagiarism Checker.
How to cite sources using Chicago or Turabian styles Author First M. Last Name, "Chapter or Essay Title," in Book Title, ed. First M. Last. Cite your source automatically in Chicago style. Website, Book For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers: Author-Date.
First, always check the requirements of your university department or the submission guidelines of the target journal. Academic journals usually require you to use a specific citation style. Some journals even have their own style guide. University departments often mandate a specific citation style, but sometimes you are allowed to choose which style you use. In this case, consider your discipline and choose a style that gives the most relevant information. For example, if you are writing a humanities paper with a lot of quotations, MLA style is a good choice to cite page numbers without interrupting the flow of your argument.
If you are writing a scientific paper where you cite a lot of studies, an author-date system like APA or Chicago B is best so that your reader can immediately see the recency of your sources. The most important thing, however, is to pick one style and apply it consistently throughout your paper. MLA style currently in its 8th edition was developed by the Modern Language Association and is especially popular in language and literary studies.
MLA uses parenthetical citations containing the author and page number. Stewart, Dave and Mark Simmons. New Rider Press, Today many other disciplines also use it. APA citation style uses an author-date system of parenthetical citation. Check your universities guidelines to see which edition you should adhere to.
Book with single author or editor: Full Chicago citation in a footnote: 5. The online and print editions are identical in that you can consult them for guidnace in formatting your research paper including finding examples of how to cite various types of sources. The Moonlight Garden. Citation styles guide: choosing a style and citing correctly Date published August 18, by Bas Swaen. Tip: Review name —The title of the review if given follows the author's name. AMA style is often used in medical sciences and uses a numeric system. List all in the bibliography.
Stewart, D. Chicago style is published by The Chicago Manual of Style. There are two variations:. Berkeley: New Riders Press, Berkeley: New Riders Press. Chicago Style Guide Chicago citation examples. It is specifically designed for students writing a research paper. Just like Chicago style, Turabian has two citation options: a note system and an author-date system. The notation system is used in humanities literature, history and the arts , while the author-date system is used in social sciences.
Harvard style is often used in the field of economics. There is no official style guide, which means there are a few variations. Some organizations have published their own style guides for Harvard style:. Vancouver style works with a numeric system. In the text, the source is indicated by a number, and the full source details appear next to that number in the reference list. Stewart D, Simmons M. The business playground: where creativity and commerce collide.
Berkeley: New Riders Press: It is the predominant citation style for legal academic writing in English. IEEE style has guidelines for specific types of sources. IEEE uses a numeric system. Accessed September 19, Gibbons, Tom. Directed by Miriam Stannage.
Perth, WA: Miriam Stannage, Stravinsky, Igor. Symphony of Psalms; Mass; Canticum Sacrum. Recorded June , November 29, Hyperion CDA, , compact disc. Macliver, Sara soprano and Sally-Anne Russell mezzo-soprano. Orchestra of the Antipodes. Antony Walker. Baroque Duets. ABC Classics , , compact disc. Davis, Miles. Columbia CK , , compact disc. Brahms, Johannes.
Clarinet Sonatas. Kalman Berkes clarinet and Jeno Jando piano. Naxos 8. Liner notes by Ivan Moody. Copland, Aaron.
Reduction for Clarinet and Piano. Johannes Brahms, Clarinet Sonata No. Clarinet Sonata No. Johann Sebastian Bach, "Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd! See: Chicago Manual of Style Online chapter 14, section Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. Last modified 22 August Westbrook, Nigel. John J. Taylor, John J. Annette Nina Condello, "Luxury and architecture : from ancient Sybaris to the early twentieth century" Ph.
Condello, Annette Nina. Personal Communication. Instead, list the email in the text or in a footnote. Janet Andrews principal adviser, Invest Architects , in discussion with the author, July Donald E. New York Times, May 3, , late edition, sec. Interviews consulted online should include a URL or similar identifier. Felsinger, Donald E. Citing information someone else has cited. Citing a secondary source is generally discouraged, since authors are expected to have examined the works they cite.
Using short form of citations and ibid. Subsequent citations already given in full should be shortened in footnotes whenever possible. The short form should include enough information to remind the reader of the full title or to lead them to appropriate entry in the bibliography. First time cited in footnotes. Schillaci, Architectural renderings , In previous editions of the manual 16th edition and earlier the abbreviation ibid.
The University of Western Australia. University Library. Chicago citation style UWA examples: 17th edition A guide to using the Chicago citation referencing style for footnotes and reference lists. Read, Art and its Discontents , Vernon et al. Book: multi-volume works 1. Book: No author 4.
Stanze in lode della donna brutta. Florence, Book: Editor, translator or compiler 2.
Goldswain and Taylor, eds. Book: Editor, translator or compiler in addition to author Book: Author's name appears in title 9. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin , Book: Corporate or Organisation as author 8. Gehl Architects, Perth , Book: Government publication 5. Book: Chapter or part of a book 3. Vernon and Seddon, "Hackett and Annear, " Book: Edition other than first 1. Beresford and Partington, Reform and Resistance , Book: Reprint editions 2. Schweizer, J. Bach , See example below 3.
Unwin, Analysing Architecture , Bonds, Mark Evan. Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York: Oxford University Press, Goldswain, "State Theatre Centre," Journal article online with a DOI Anderson, "Perth Arena," Newspapers Article from print newspaper 2. Miles, "Crime Rate". Bramston, Troy. Webpage: No Author 8. Webpage: No Date Facebook page 3. UWA Library, Facebook page.
Facebook post 1. Twitter profile UWA news, Twitter page.
UWA news Twitter page. Accessed September 14, Twitter post 'tweet' 2. O'Brien, Twitter post. Online video YouTube Image: Online 6. Ewing, Reid, and Otto Clemente. Measuring urban design: Metrics for livable places. Washington: Island Press, Goldswain, Prospecting, Conference Proceeding Paper: Electronic Bay, Social and environmental dimensions, Sound recording composer emphasis 1.
Sound recording performer emphasis 1. Track from a sound recording 1.